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中国彩礼返还规则的法律问题研究

时间:2017-07-07 来源:ca88亚洲城 所属分类: 法律硕士论文 本文字数:3479字
    本篇论文目录导航:

【题目】 中国彩礼返还规则的法律问题研究
【前言 第一章】彩礼的界定及法律属性
【第二章】彩礼返还规则在我国的立法现状及实务应用
【第三章】我国彩礼返还规则的立法缺陷
【第四章】我国彩礼返还制度的立法完善建议
【结语/参考文献】国内彩礼返还规则的立法构建研究结语与参考文献

  中文摘要:彩礼给付作为一种传统婚俗习惯在我国具有悠久的历史。在我国古代,婚前给付彩礼是缔结婚姻的必经程序。在现代,婚前给付彩礼虽然不是缔结婚姻的必经程序,但仍是一种普遍存在

的社会现象。随着社会经济的快速发展,人们生活水平的提高,彩礼给付的数额较大,彩礼给付的方式和形式也趋于多样化,彩礼纠纷案的数量也逐年增加。2003 年 12 月 25 日最高人民法院颁布的《

关于适用〈中华人民共和国婚姻法〉若干问题的解释(二)》(以下简称《婚姻法司法解释(二)》)第十条对彩礼返还做出了具体规定,为彩礼纠纷案的处理提供了直接的法律依据,有助于规范人民

法院审理彩礼纠纷案。但是司法解释(二)的规定比较笼统,没有明确彩礼的法律属性,对相关概念没有明确的界定,没有考虑风俗习惯,很难在司法实践中得到切实有效的应用。司法解释(二)存在

的这些缺陷需要我们进一步研究。本文从彩礼返还规则的立法现状和司法实践的角度出发,分析彩礼返还规则立法和实践中存在的不足,通过仔细的分析研究,找出存在的问题,针对存在的问题给出具

体的完善建议,促进相关立法的完善,调解立法与司法实践的矛盾。
  
  关键字:彩礼,返还规则,现状,不足,建议1.1 彩礼的界定1.1.1 彩礼的含义什么是彩礼?在我国古代,彩礼的给付存在于传统的婚俗礼仪之中,一般称之为“纳征”,是指男女双方在举行完婚仪

式之前,由男方当事人或其亲属给付女方当事人或其亲属一定的财物和礼品等,表示男方当事人要与女方当事人缔结婚约的决心和意愿。在女方当事人收受了男方当事人给付的财物和礼品后,双方当事

人的婚约关系成立。依照这种风俗习惯给付彩礼订立的婚约,在我国古代被称为是“聘娶婚”.由此可见,如果婚前男方给付女方财物或礼品不是以订立婚约为目的,那么这些财物或礼品就不能称之为是

彩礼。给付彩礼在古代是缔结婚姻的必经程序,是男女双方婚姻合法化的体现,在古代的婚姻制度中具有重要的意义。首先,男方给付彩礼具有补偿女方家因女儿出嫁丧失劳动力的补偿作用。

     Applicable Research on Returning Bride Price Rule of Law

                          Abstract

    As a traditional wedding customs of the bride has a long history in our country. In ancientChina, premarital marriage to Bride price is a necessary procedure. In modern

times, though notbefore marriage to Bride price marriage necessary procedure, but is still a widespreadphenomenon. Send a society with the rapid economic development, people's

living standardsimprove, the number of relatively large amount, manner and form of payment of bride price is alsomore diversified, dowry disputes bride price payments also

increased year by year. “Interpretationof applicable <People's Republic of China Marriage Law> Issues (b)” (hereinafter referred to as“judicial interpretation of the

Marriage Law (B)”) December 25, 2003 issued by the SupremeCourt Article 10 The return of bride price to make a specific provides for the bride price disputeprocess provides

a direct legal basis helps regulate people's court hearing dowry disputes. Butjudicial interpretation (b) more general provisions, there is no clear legal property of the

brideprice, the relevant concept is not clearly defined, without considering the customs, it is difficult toobtain effective application in judicial practice. Judicial

interpretation (b) these deficiencies andgaps in the legislation we need to do further research. From the legislative status quo returningbetrothal gifts rule and judicial

point of view, the return of bride price analysis inadequatelegislation and rules that exist in practice, analysis and research, identify problems, put forward asound proposal

to make relevant laws and regulations tend to improve gradually.
  
  This paper consists of an introduction, body and conclusion, the text of four parts.
  
  The first part of this article on the meaning and history of the bride made a detailedexposition on this basis, we examined the differences between bride and related

concepts.Secondly, this paper analyzes the various theories about the bride price theorists property law anda variety of theories to do assessment, so that we learn more about

this Wedding bride pricesystem. Finally, after this paper analyzes and summarizes views on the bride price obtained legalproperty.
  
  The second part describes the practical application of current legislation and returningbetrothal gifts rule. By returning betrothal gifts rule Situation Analysis of

legislation, legislation toprove the existence of gaps and defects. By enumerating the specific case of judicial practice andto reflect the results of the trial, he noted that

legislation and practice returning betrothal gifts ruleof contradiction and conflict phenomenon.
  
  The third part is the lack of returning betrothal gifts rule. This section summarizes thelegislation on the part of the bride price return Commentary on Rules and Judicial

Practicethinking problems. This article summarizes a total of seven the following question: lack ofprotection of rights and interests of women innocent party; “live together”

that difficult; “hardship”is defined is not clear; not explicitly bride price range, and return mode; the subject of litigationand litigation statute of limitations is not

clear; the validity of the evidence is not clear; the returnof the case the provisions are too simple.
  
  The fourth part is the perfect suggestion of returning betrothal gifts rule. This sectionsummarizes for the deficiencies of our returning betrothal gifts rule exists in

legislation andpractice give specific recommendations. Three parts will be specifically set forth: First, the returnof the rule describes the perfect bride importance; the

second is clear that the need to comply withthe rules on returning betrothal gifts perfect basic principles; the third is to give specificrecommendations on specific issues.
  
  Keywords: bride price, the return of the rule, the status quo, inadequate,recommendations


 

  目 录
  
  中文摘要……I
  Abstract……III
  前 言……1

  第一章 彩礼的界定及法律属性……2
  1.1 彩礼的界定……2
  1.1.1 彩礼的含义……2
  1.1.2 彩礼的历史沿革……3
  1.1.3 彩礼与相关概念的区别……4
  1.2 彩礼的法律属性……5
  1.2.1 关于彩礼法律属性的各种学说……5
  1.2.2 对上述各种学说的评析……6

  第二章 彩礼返还规则在我国的立法现状及实务应用……9
  2.1 彩礼返还规则在我国的立法现状及评介……9
  2.1.1 《民法通则》中的相关规定……9
  2.1.2 最高人民法院的两个《若干意见》相关规定……9
  2.1.3 婚姻法司法解释(二)的相关规定……10
  2.2 彩礼返还经典案例的分析……11
  2.2.1 案例一:付某诉李某婚约解除彩礼返还纠纷案……11
  2.2.2 案例二:刘某诉余某离婚彩礼返还纠纷案……12
  2.2.3 案例三:赵某诉王某离婚彩礼返还纠纷案……14

  第三章 我国彩礼返还规则的立法缺陷……16
  3.1 缺乏对妇女权益和无过错方权益的保护……16
  3.2 “共同生活”认定难……17
  3.3 “生活困难”界定不清楚……17
  3.4 未明确彩礼的范围和返还方式……18
  3.5 诉讼主体和诉讼时效规定不明确……19
  3.6 证据的效力问题未明确……20
  3.7 返还情形规定过于单一……20

  第四章 我国彩礼返还规则的立法完善建议……22
  4.1 完善我国彩礼返还规则的意义……22
  4.1.1 完善彩礼返还规则的法律意义……22
  4.1.2 完善彩礼返还规则的现实意义……23
  4.2 完善我国彩礼返还规则应遵守的原则……24
  4.2.1 公平原则……24
  4.2.2 保护妇女和无过错方合法权益原则……25
  4.2.3 尊重风俗习惯原则……25
  4.3 完善我国彩礼返还规则立法的具体建议……26
  4.3.1 注重对妇女和无过错方权益的保护……26
  4.3.2 明确“共同生活”的含义……27
  4.3.3 准确界定“生活困难”……28
  4.3.4 明确彩礼的范围和返还方式……28
  4.3.5 明确诉讼主体和诉讼时效……30
  4.3.6 明确证据认定标准及举证责任……31
  4.3.7 明确其他三种情形下彩礼返还方式……32

  结 语……33
  参考文献……34
  在学期间的研究成果……36
  致 谢……37

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